Vivekananda at the World Parliament of Religions
History, India, Lists, Newspapers, Religion

Did Vivekananda say ‘Sisters and Brothers of America’? Fact checking a fact check

Swami Vivekananda’s famous address at the 1893 Parliament of World’s Religions at Chicago was back in the news again with Prime Minister Narendra Modi taking the opportunity of the 124th anniversary (not 125th as it has been widely reported) of the speech on September 11, 2017, to address students around the country.

Swami Vivekananda poster

Abroad in America – Swami Vivekananda, a lithographic poster by Goes Lithograph Company.

And before we start, let me set the record straight that there is no audio recording of Vivekananda’s speech. That audio clip that someone forwarded you is most likely the voice of Subir Ghosh.

Now on the point of this particular post.

We all have grown up reading that Swami Vivekananda began his Chicago address with the salutation “Sisters and brothers of America,” followed by a long applause.

But then a few days ago, Pathikrit Sanyal, in a comment to a Facebook post, bought to my notice this January 2015 post in the DailyO that claims that “Vivekananda never said, ‘Sisters and brothers of America'” and attempts to bust the “myth”.

The post also chides the then US President Barack Obama for repeating the “myth” during his January 27, 2005 address at New Delhi’s Siri Fort.

The author’s conclusion is based on his/her reading of an 1893 book A Chorus of Faith that recounts the speeches at the Parliament of Religions. Because the book doesn’t make any mention of “Sisters and brothers of America,” the author arrives at the conclusion that it was a falsehood and wonders, “who first started this myth that Vivekananda said those lines.

Swami Vivekananda with other delegates at the Parliament of World's Religions, Chicago

Swami Vivekananda with other delegates at the Parliament of World’s Religions, Chicago in September 1893. To his left is Anagarika Dharmapala, the Buddhist revivalist representing the Maha Bodhi Society, Calcutta.

As I had been reading and posting about the famous speech as the Prime Minister was talking on live television, this got me redirecting my research a little.

The book A Chorus of Faith, mentioned in the DailyO article, is based on the reports published in The Chicago Daily Tribune and I was digging out relevant portions from the Tribune‘s archives for a a different (but related) purpose.

It occurred to me that the Tribune in its reporting of the addresses at the Parliament of Religions generally didn’t usually include salutations at the start of the addresses (though they did emphasise on the applause). And therefore this omission of “Sisters and brothers of America” doesn’t mean that Vivekananda didn’t start that way.

Chicago Daily Tribune, September 12, 1893

Clipping from ‘The Chicago Daily Tribune’ from September 12, 1893 reporting on Swami Vivekananda’s address to the Parliament of World’s Religions at Chicago on September 11, 1893.

I then went back to my original post debunking the audio recording of the speech and found that MS Nanjundiah in his research on Swami Vivekananda’s voice recording had referred to a letter from Vivekananda to Alasinga Perumal.

A quick search led me to the letter and the answer to the question about “who first started this myth that Vivekananda said those lines.”

It was Vivekananda himself. And therefore, we have a first-hand source here.

“I addressed the assembly as ‘Sisters and Brothers of America’, a deafening applause of two minutes followed, and then I proceeded…” Vivekananda wrote in that letter from Chicago dated November 2, 1893.

Vivekananda's letter to Perumal

A copy of Swami Vivekananda’s letter from Chicago to Alasinga Perumal dated November 2, 1893

The DailyO post, goes through the introduction of A Chorus of Faith to find no mention of Vivekanda. “The reader will notice that no mention of Vivekananda has been made, though in India it is believed that he made such great an impact,” it observes.

However, reports in The Chicago Tribune suggest that he did make some impact. Vivekananda’s famous speech was punctuated by more than one applause (unlike most of the other speeches reported).

Vivekananda with other delegates from India at Chicago

Swami Vivekananda with other delegates from India at the the Parliament of World’s Religions, Chicago in September 1893. To his right is Anagarika Dharmapala, the Buddhist revivalist representing the Maha Bodhi Society, Calcutta.

The September 23, 1893 edition of the newspaper described one of Vivekananda’s speeches at the Parliament as such (the report identifies him as a Brahmin):

“In the scientific section yesterday morning Swami Vivekananda spoke on ‘orthodox Hindooism.’ Hall 8 was crowded to overflowing, and hundreds of questions were asked by auditors and answered by the great Brahmin Sannyasi with wonderful skill and lucidity. At the close of the session he was met by eager questioners who begged him to give a semi-public lecture somewhere on the subject of his religion. He said he already had the project under consideration.”

Clipping from Chicago Daily Tribune dated September 23, 1893

Rajagopal Chattopadhyaya in his book Swami Vivekananda in India: A Corrective Biography does mention that none of the three New York newspapers he looked at – The New York Times, The New York Hearld, and The New York Daily Tribune – reported on Swami Vivekananda at the Parliament of World’s Religions, though some other Indians got appreciative mentions.

Vivekananda’s letter to Alasinga Perumal, though, paints a different picture.

“The next day all the papers announced that my speech was the hit of the day, and I became known to the whole of America. Truly has it been said by the great commentator Shridhara — “मूकं करोति वाचालं — Who maketh the dumb a fluent speaker.” His name be praised! From that day I became a celebrity, and the day I read my paper on Hinduism, the hall was packed as it had never been before. I quote to you from one of the papers: ‘Ladies, ladies, ladies packing every place — filling every corner, they patiently waited and waited while the papers that separated them from Vivekananda were read’, etc. You would be astonished if I sent over to you the newspaper cuttings, but you already know that I am a hater of celebrity. Suffice it to say, that whenever I went on the platform, a deafening applause would be raised for me. Nearly all the papers paid high tributes to me, and even the most bigoted had to admit that “This man with his handsome face and magnetic presence and wonderful oratory is the most prominent figure in the Parliament”, etc., etc. Sufficient for you to know that never before did an Oriental make such an impression on American society.”

Vivekananda, as many would know, wasn’t the only representative from India that the gathering. Though I am not sure of the actual number, I could count 15 from all the reports that I came across. At least nine of them were present on the platform at the opening of the first Parliament of World’s Religions on September 11, 1893.

List of delegates from India at the First Parliament of World’s Religions in Chicago

(The names and descriptions may differ from the actual as there are inconsistencies in the reports, for example Swami Vivekananda is also mentioned as Suani Vive Kananda at some places.)

  1. Nara Sima Chari (Representing the Sri Vaishmara sect and Visistawaiti philosophy)
  2. Lakshmi Natain/Narain (Representing the Kayastha community)
  3. Birchand Raghavji Gandhi (Honorary Secretary to the Jain Association of India, Bombay)
  4. Siddhu Ram (appeal writer, Mooltau, Punjab)
  5. Swami Vivekananda (a monk of the orthodox Brahminical religion)
  6. BB Nagarkar (Minister, Brahmo Samaj of Bombay)
  7. Protap Chunder Mazoomdar (Minister and leader of the Brahmo Samaj of India)
  8. Jinda Ram (Lawyer, President of the Temperance Society: Vedic, Muzaffargarh)
  9. Anagarika Dharmapala (General Secretary, Maha Bodhi Society, Calcutta)
  10. Prof. CN Chakravarti (Allahabad)
  11. Jeanne Sorabji (A Parsee lady from Bombay)
  12. Jinanji Jamshedji Modi (Parsee)
  13. Manilal Dvivedi (Bombay)
  14. Justice Amir Ali (Calcutta)
  15. Maurice Phillips (Madras)
PC Mazoomdar and BB Nagarkar

Illustrations of PC Mazoomdar and BB Nagarkar printed in the ‘Chicago Daily Tribune’.

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Mrinalini Sarabhai the unofficial Google doodle
Bollywood, India, Movies, People

2016 in unofficial Google doodles

There are some doodles that Google didn’t (or wouldn’t) doodle. The Chaiwallah prides himself as an unofficial Google doodler. I have written about these unofficial doodles and they have also been written about at a couple of places.

2016 had its fair share of the unofficial Google doodles and the doodles are not necessarily a reflection of the importance of occasion, but have more to do with spare time at hand and the doodleability.

While the Ajay Devgn 25 years of Phool Aur Kaante doodle was the most shared on social, do let me know which is your favourite.

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Narendra Modi rakhi
Bizarre, Festivals, India, Politics

Sisters, will you tie your brothers a Narendra Modi rakhi this Raksha Bandhan? Rs 20 only

Narendra Modi rakhi

The image of Narendra Modi continues to seep into our everyday lives, not only from the media but also from regular objects around us. Almost a decade after the present Prime Minister and then Chief Minister of Gujarat’s face was featured on condom packets distributed by the state government, Modi’s likeness is now also appearing on things that are much more sanskari.

Yet another Modi merchandise. Presenting the Narendra Modi rakhi. Rs 20 only.

Discovered this in the neighbourhood market while accompanying the Chaiwali to her rakhi shopping. Glum Modis were waving at me in the company of guitar-strumming Ganesha rakhis. Picked one for Rs 20. The PM should be pleased as these appear to be made in India.

Narendra Modi rakhi

In all likelihood this is only one of the many variants of the Modi rakhis available this season.

Not sure how popular these would be this Raksha Bandhan. But I would surely like to be there when a ‘bhakt’ behan ties this to the wrist of her ‘sickular’ bhai.

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India, Media, Newspapers, Politics

25 world newspaper front pages with Narendra Modi and BJP’s victory headlines

The elections in the world’s largest democracy (that is also a prominent emerging economy) is obviously an item of importance in the world media. Here’s a snapshot of how newspapers around the world covered the news of Narendra Modi and BJP’s emphatic victory in the elections to the 16th Lok Sabha.

Modi might have won these elections promising development and making a deliberate shift away from BJP’s Hindutva politics, but he is still identified as a Hindu nationalist in many of the headlines and news reports.

New York Times, New York, USA

New York Times, New York, USA

Wall Street Journal, New York, USA

Wall Street Journal, New York, USA

Dawn, Karachi, Pakistan

Dawn, Karachi, Pakistan

The Independent, Dhaa, Bangladesh

The Independent, Dhaa, Bangladesh

Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Frankfurt, Germany

Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Frankfurt, Germany

Lidove Noviny, Prague, Czech Republic

Lidove Noviny, Prague, Czech Republic

de Volkskrant, Amsterdam, Netherlands

de Volkskrant, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Buenos Aires Herald, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Buenos Aires Herald, Buenos Aires, Argentina

The Daily Star, Beirut, Lebanon

The Daily Star, Beirut, Lebanon

Gazeta do Povo, Curitiba, Brazil

Gazeta do Povo, Curitiba, Brazil

Khaleej Times, Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Khaleej Times, Dubai, United Arab Emirates

El Mercurio, Santiago, Chile

El Mercurio, Santiago, Chile

Arab News, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Arab News, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Arab Times, Shuwaikh, Kuwait

Arab Times, Shuwaikh, Kuwait

Borneo Bulletin, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam

Borneo Bulletin, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam

Gulf News, Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Gulf News, Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Kuwait Times, Kuwait

Kuwait Times, Kuwait

La Stampa, Torino, Italy

La Stampa, Torino, Italy

Le Matinal, Port Louis, Mauritius

Le Matinal, Port Louis, Mauritius

Star, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Star, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

The Australian Financial Review, Sydney, Australia

The Australian Financial Review, Sydney, Australia

The Himalayan Times, Kathmandu, Nepal

The Himalayan Times, Kathmandu, Nepal

The National, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

The National, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

The Straits Times, Singapore

The Straits Times, Singapore

Virgin Islands Daily News, Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands

Virgin Islands Daily News, Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands

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Grumbles, Politics

Narendra Modi (and others) got it wrong. Rupee wasn’t equal to the dollar in 1947

This ‘fact’ like so many others had been flooding my timeline for long and when the wannabe-PM Narendra Modi also repeated the same (without fact-checking of course. Facts don’t always make for bombastic speeches) and his fans took it as gospel truth (some of his followers may disagree with my use of the phrase).

I did my own calculations and also came across a Business Standard story that reaches more or less to the same conclusion: In 1947 the US dollar was equal to about Rs 3 and not Re 1.

Rupee wasn't equal to the dollar in 1947

First my own calculations:

In 1947 the Bretton Woods system was the prevalent exchange system in the world and India also adopted it. According to it, the value of the Indian rupee was pegged as equivalent to the value of 0.268601 gram of gold and the price of gold was fixed at $35 per ounce. If we use this as a standard, then a little math tells us that the value of $1 comes to Rs 3.015575144061567, not Re 1 as Modi loudly proclaimed in Hyderabad (and also by other politicians from other parties).

Now to what Business Standard has to say:

At the time of independence, India’s currency was pegged to pound sterling, and the exchange rate was a shilling and six pence for a rupee – which worked out to Rs 13.33 to the pound. The dollar-pound exchange rate then was $4.03 to the pound, which in effect gave a rupee-dollar rate in 1947 of around Rs 3.30.

The variation between the two figures is less than one-third of a rupee, but is 200% more than what Modi claimed.

Moral of the story: Don’t believe in (and like) everything that appears on your Facebook timeline or for that matter what Narendra Modi (and other politicians) say.

Also read: Demystified – ‘Your cell phone has a name’ Facebook hack that’s gone viral

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